what is dielectric oil

Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. It does not dissolve in most liquids like methanol, mineral oil, ethanol, and water. The rate-of-change of the dielectric constant will depend on the physical properties of the oil that affect the settling rate of the contaminants, such as density and viscosity, as well as the oil’s additive package, with more highly additized oils showing a smaller rate-of-change, because it will take longer for contaminants, particularly water, to settle out under these circumstances. The dielectric constant of a material is a measure of its ability to transmit electrical potential energy. In this case, the dielectric constant gives information on the presence of contaminants and the condition of the oil’s additive package. 5.0 out of 5 stars Five Stars. Vaseline, on the other hand, is a term used to refer to petroleum jelly. Where the correct oil is in use, an increase in the dielectric constant of a new oil with the value of previous batches of new oil may indicate the presence of contaminants or a change in oil chemistry. Using this formulation, silicone grease is a translucent white viscous paste, with exact properties dependent on the type and proportion of the components. It increases dielectric strength. Performing a replacement of glass for polyethylene in a container, will reduce the amount of emulsified water, desorbed from the surface during oil stirring. There are three cases in which dielectric strength increases: It is proved that breakdown voltage of transformer oil is not determined by the overall water content, but its concentration in the emulsion state. Oldenburg-Eversten, Deutschland, 26131. An increase in temperature from 0 to 70 °C also leads to an increase in dielectric strength of transformer oil. hbspt.cta.load(3951034, '0185d019-b885-48b3-81bb-598c6269bb64', {}); Comparison of the bulk dielectric constant of new and used oil can also give useful information in other areas of oil analysis. This simple test can be used on-site and under some circumstances, can determine immediately whether the correct oil has been used after an oil change. A theory is adopted that the mechanism of breakdown at dynamic (pulse) stress and at prolonged exposure has different nature. As an EDM operator for many years, I witnessed many customers commenting on the disgusting odor bubbling out of the EDM tank. Conversely, a decrease in viscosity caused by the addition of wrong oil or fuel dilution will result in a decrease in viscosity. Careful draining of dielectric fluid from a glass vessel without mixing allows obtaining oil with high dielectric strength. The dielectric constant as a function of temperature for some simple paraffinic hydrocarbons is shown in the figure below. This is due in large part to differences in the polarizability of these different molecules. However, the oil based dielectrics are not environmentally friendly. This parameter is determined by using flat copper electrodes with rounded edges, 2.5 mm apart. The presence of polar, low-boiling and high-boiling substances has almost no effect on electric conductivity and dielectric strength of insulating liquid. There are three ways/stages of vacuum drying of transformer oil: Globecore GmbH Edewechter Landstraße 173 We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. These cookies do not store any personal information. If the electric field intensity is lower than breakdown intensity, one can observe the emergence of bubbles on electrodes. Put simply, a dielectric breakdown voltage test is a measure of the electrical stress that an insulating oil can withstand without breakdown. The typical decrease in dielectric constant for hydrocarbon oils is about 0.0013 or 0.05 percent per degree Celsius. Therefore, gases have relatively small dielectric constants, typically 1.00xx, where xx represents typical variation between gas dielectric constants in the third and fourth decimal places. It is used in many applications including home electrical work, vehicle wiring, and automotive tune-up. I used this to refill a small submersible pump that I took apart. Another important factor in oil … Dielectric, insulating material or a very poor conductor of electric current. The figure shows the dielectric constant changing from 2.198 to 2.360 over a time period of 180 seconds, or a change of 0.162. 37 Both carbide and oxide were identified on the recast layer formed on the samples in water-in-oil emulsion. One of the popular dielectric greases to use is Permatex Dielectric Grease and CRC dielectric grease. In particular, an oil with emulsifiers will produce a large number of small-sized water particles. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. For example, Hexane is a simple six-carbon paraffinic-type compound and has a lower dielectric constant (1.8865) than six-carbon naphthenic cyclohexane (2.0243) and six-carbon aromatic benzene (2.285). (ii) Breakdown voltage is measured by observing at what voltage, sparking strands between two electrodes immersed in the oil, separated by a specific gap. The breakdown process is also greatly influenced by dissolved gases. thermal theory: which explains the phenomenon of gas passages occurring as a result of boiling of homogeneous dielectric  (gas bubbles, etc). Measuring the dielectric constant of an oil can give important information on oil quality. The density of gases is about one thousandth the density of solids and liquids. This time-resolved dielectric constant will show an increase in the dielectric constant over time because these contaminants are denser (heavier) than oil and settle on the grid. Advanced heat transfer fluids are helping today’s electric motors achieve smaller size, lower temperatures, lower failure rates and longer service life. Dielectric grease is some translucent substance that is used to seal electrical conductors to prevent dust, sand, dirt, or other foreign materials from sticking to the conductor. Hydrocarbon lubricating oils have dielectric constants that typically range from 2.1 to 2.4, depending on the viscosity of the oil, the oil’s density, the relative paraffinic, naphthenic, and aromatic content and the oil’s additive package. The data shown in Figure 2 is taken from a new sample of oil deliberately contaminated with a known quantity of water. There is another type of dielectric grease that is known as silicone grease or silicone dielectric grease. Oxidized dielectric oil, i.e., mixture of fatty acid and hydrocarbon oil perform most stable machining due to dissolve of suspended debris by the formation of organometallic compounds. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Comparison of the change in dielectric between new and used oil can also give important information on oil quality. A Heavy Oil Mobility Quicklook Using Dielectric Measurements at Four Depths of Investigation Using the previously mentioned dielectric oil crossover technique, comparison of each of these measurements to total porosity yields an oil saturation profile, reflecting the oil movement that has occurred during the invasion process. gas theory: according to which the presence of gas bubbles on the electrodes or dissolved in oil leads to breakdown; chemical theory: explaining breakdowns as a result of chemical reactions taking place in the dielectric under the influence of an electrical discharge in gas bubbles. However, FTIR typically requires an expensive instrument and expert interpretation. Dielectric grease is also known as tune-up grease. Dielectric strength is an indicator used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil. They can be also defined as a substance that does not allow the flow of charges through it permits them to exert electric field and force. Generally, polydimethylsiloxane is used in silicone oil, … But opting out of some of these cookies may have an effect on your browsing experience. Clean transformer oil generally contains no water and other impurities, which allows it to have sufficient breakdown voltage (over 60 kV). Mineral Oil has been used as a … Hansterfer’s EDM Dielectric Oil Make a good impression on potential customers, and eliminating the smoky, smelly, kerosene based EDM oil is an easy way to clean up your image, and improve your bottom line. It is found that water-in-oil emulsion as dielectric results in the formation of a recast layer with great surface roughness, thickness, and micro-hardness compared with a recast layer formed in kerosene and deionized water. You also have the option to opt-out of these cookies. Transformer Oil Dielectric Strength Test The transformer oil or insulating oil is used in transformers as well as some electrical equipment to: insulate the live parts, maintain insulating properties of the material such as paper, winding, etc. For nonhydrocarbon-based oils, dielectric constants will vary based on polarity and polarizability. Transformer oil's primary functions are to insulate and cool a transformer. Typical values of dielectric constant for different classes of lubricating oils are shown in Table 2. The Dielectric Constant, or permittivity - ε - is a dimensionless constant that indicates how easy a material can be polarized by imposition of an electric field on an insulating material. Besides that, oil together with a metal case and filters protects operating personnel from exposure to X-rays. Determining oil quality usually requires complex laboratory equipment to measure the viscosity, refractive index, density, base number (BN), acid number (AN), water content, metals (additives and wear metals), color and flash point. By contrast, measuring the dielectric constants offers a quick, simple, low-cost alternative to permit the differentiation between different classes of oil. Dielectric strength is an indicator used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil. Its main purpose is to prevent or rapidly quench electric discharges. In particular, changes greater than 0.01 indicate a change in oil quality that needs evaluation by conventional oil analysis methods such as acid number, base number, Karl Fischer moisture and particle analysis. Dielectric Breakdown (kV) Dielectric Breakdown (kV) 1mm gap 2mm gap Sheets, FM Global, Norwood, MA, USA 2.5mm gap Gassing Tendency (mm/min) Dissipation Factor 25˚C (%) 90˚C (tan ) 100˚C (%) Corrosive Sulfur ... oil and Envirotemp FR3 fluid. Also, the dielectric grease blocks moisture, preventing corrosion in the process. The dielectric oil arrived on time and did just what I expected. What is oil dielectric breakdown voltage testing? It generates aerosol and some hazardous gases when used as dielectrics during EDM operation. It is an expression of the extent to which a material concentrates electric flux, and is the electrical equivalent of relative magnetic permeability. Typical specifications are: flash point 140 °C or greater, pour point −40 °C or lower, dielectric breakdown voltage 28 kV (RMS) or greater. Emulsified water appears by  stirring oil with water adsorbed on the surface of a container thus lowering temperature and lowering humidity. The rate of breakdown voltage is affected by the presence of bound water – which is dehydrated by vacuum drying. Thus by definition, the dielectric constant of a vacuum is exactly 1.0. We also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and understand how you use this website. Figure 3 shows the change in dielectric constant versus water content for Mobil Super 1300, a commonly used multigrade engine oil. Definition: Dielectric is the materials that do not allow electricity to flow within them but show electric effects. Is oil a dielectric? Commonwealth Oil – EDM 244 About EDM 244 This is the most popular and most highly respected dielectric fluid in North America.This is the fluid that first made operators aware that dielectric fluids did not have to be hazardous. Finally, measuring the time-resolved dielectric constant of an oil sample can yield important information on the quantity of contaminants present in the oil sample. Any vegetable oil might work, depending on the voltage. When a dielectric material is placed in an electric field, electric charges do not flow through the material as they do in an electrical conductor but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric polarization. + Update your shipping location 7 S 0 P O N S O A R P A 7 E E D-1-1 U J-1 0 F J-1-1. The density of the oil also influences the dependence of the dielectric constant on temperature - the less dense an oil, the fewer number of oil molecules per unit volume. Dielectric constant and dielectric strength of some Polymers Compound Dielectric Constant, ε (1 MHz) Dielectric Strength (kV/cm) Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) 2.0 - 2.1 600 - 700 Air 1.0 15 - 30 Silicone Oil 2.5 150 Distilled Water 80 65 - 70 It is very often equated with breakdown voltage, but their numerical values are not equal. This article discusses static dielectric constants that are below electric field frequencies of 106 Hz. However, the dielectric constant is another important indicator of oil quality that is easy to measure on-site. The formation of colloidal solutions and emulsions with a very small droplet size in transformer oil causes the phenomenon of electrophoretic conductivity. Dielectric grease is used to disturb the flow of electric current with the property of good lubricants. Another application of dielectric monitoring for determining oil quality is to use a grid capacitor to measure the dielectric constant as any contaminants settle on the grid. The dielectric constant is a simple number that is the relative ratio of the speed of an electric field in a material compared to the speed of the electric field in a vacuum. Transformer oil is used in X-ray machines to remove heat from the X-ray tube, and simultaneously it performs the dielectric oil functions. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. A lot of experimental data relating to dielectric liquids breakdown has accumulated in the recent years, but it did not help to justify a theory of its origin. Presence of dynamic stress (regardless of the presence of gases and contaminants). Other things that will change the dielectric constant of used oil include an increase in viscosity changes in acid number or base number and additive depletion. sharp increase in breakdown voltage corresponding with the removal of emulsified water; breakdown voltage changes only slightly and stops at the level of 60 kV. These contaminants, which include water, dirt and metal particles, will have a higher dielectric constant than the surrounding oil on the grid and cause the increase in the dielectric constant as shown in Figure 2. Mineral oil is used inside electrical transformers as a fluid dielectric and to assist in cooling. The test can be done on-site using simple equipment and can give the value of the dielectric constant to four significant figures. Water with a room temperature dielectric constant of around 70 is easy to find if it is a contaminant in a new oil, which should have a dielectric constant around 2.1 to 2.4. As stated previously, the dielectric constant is a measure of the relative ratio of the speed of an electric field in a material compared to the speed of the electric field in a vacuum. Today the greatest popularity gained  three groups of theories: It is easy to see that all three theories recognize that breakdown of oil takes place in a steam channels formed by evaporation of dielectric liquid itself. Therefore, commutation and lightning strikes pose  relatively low risk. The only other common technology capable of this is infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences Between Dielectric Grease and Vaseline. Silicone grease, sometimes called dielectric grease, is a waterproof grease made by combining a silicone oil with a thickener. Dielectric oil is just mineral oil, but combustion resistant. A low value of BDV indicates presence of moisture content and conducting substances in the oil. The dielectric material supports the electric field but opposes the flow of charges. At this stage, the removal of dissolved and bound water is performed; slow increase in breakdown voltage due to the removal of bound water. For example, if the user has a baseline measurement of the dielectric constant of the new oil, then a higher dielectric constant than usual from a used oil sample indicates either contamination, or a change in the chemistry of the oil. It was widely accepted as a viable dielectric fluid and can be found in transformers throughout the world today. Dielectric constant, also called relative permittivity or specific inductive capacity, property of an electrical insulating material (a dielectric) equal to the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor filled with the given material to the capacitance of an identical capacitor in a vacuum without the dielectric material. Dielectric constants at these frequencies are called static because the dielectric constant of materials shows virtually no frequency dependence in this frequency region. Dielectric strength of oils is also determined by the dielectric loss tangent or “Tan Delta.” As stated above, dielectric strength of transformer oil is mainly determined by the presence of acids, water, and other contaminates in the oil. It must therefore have high dielectric strength, thermal conductivity, and chemical stability, and must keep these properties when held at high temperatures for extended periods. Dielectric strength is not a constant value for materials. The dielectric oil -movability quicklook provides a wellsite indication of oil flushing. In general, the value of the dielectric constant varies with the frequency of the applied electric field. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. Mineral-based hydrocarbon lubricating oils usually contain 20 to 30 carbon atoms and are typically complex mixtures of simple and branched paraffins, naphthenic molecules and aromatics. As the temperature increases, the density decreases and hence the dielectric constant of the oil also decreases. used in the machine, These lightweight, rugged units are designed for field and laboratory use.. In electrical systems such as capacitors, the effectiveness of dielectrics is measured by their ability to store energy. By contrast, metals have an infinite dielectric constant because they are conductors. The dielectric strength of transformer oil is also known as the breakdown voltage (BDV) of transformer oil. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced in the direction of the … It is waterproof grease that is prepared by coalescing silicone oil with the use of an appropriate amount of thickener. The DTS Series provides repeatable and accurate measurements of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils used in electrical equipment. The mineral-based oil like transformer oil is frequently used in different types of transformers for its dielectric strength as well as electrical properties. Because of the simplicity of the technique, online dielectric constant sensors are available which are capable of continuously monitoring oil quality in many applications. When dielectrics are placed in an electric field, practically no current flows in them because, unlike metals, they have no loosely bound, or free, electrons that may drift through the material. The oil used in the transformer is a key element to check the physical condition of the unit. A dielectric material is one that has poor conductivity, but an ability to hold a charge with an applied electric field. When the dielectric constant of a lubricating oil is measured, changes in the dielectric constant of the used oil compared to new oil may indicate the presence of contaminants, such as water or particles, or changes in chemistry of the oil such as additive depletion or oxidation. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Dielectric Fluids are replacing standard mineral oils in both stationary and mobile motor cooling applications because of their exceptional stability, cleanliness and heat transfer characteristics. Furthermore, it shows that as the number of carbons increases from 8 to 16, the dielectric constant increases as a result of the increased polarizability of larger molecules. In the last five decades in India, there is a drastic change in production technology. If such solutions have a low boiling point, the dielectric strength is reduced, if a boiling point is high – it is practically unchanged. Water has an anonymously large and temperature-dependent dielectric constant due to its permanent electric dipole and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding. Because this oil has a high additive package required for engine applications, it shows a dielectric constant change with increasing water content smaller than the Gardener Denver Screw Compressor Oil that has a lower additive package and therefore does not emulsify water as effectively as an engine oil. Contaminants and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding themselves have higher dielectric constants are shown in Table 2 to... Different six-carbon compounds can have different dielectric values depending on their makeup dielectric strength a. Voltage applied to an insulation, resulting in its breaking down contaminants and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding dielectric. For the website to function properly wrong oil or fuel dilution will result a. That have higher dielectric constants will vary based on the presence of contaminants and the resultant effects of bonding! India, there is a measure of the extent to which a material concentrates what is dielectric oil... Material or a very poor conductor of electric current with the property of good lubricants systems such capacitors! In large part to differences in the oil ’ s additive package pressure, dielectric. 106 Hz time and did just what I expected the value of the extent to which a is... Check the physical condition of the website to function properly known quantity of water of BDV indicates of... Contaminated with a thickener vacuum drying of transformer oil that I took.! Stress dielectric strength is an indicator used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil causes the phenomenon electrophoretic. Of solids and liquids a glass vessel without mixing allows obtaining oil with a very droplet. Fluid is changing and mechanical impurities occur, it immediately begins to experience a decrease in dielectric new! Oil dielectric AC test sets provide replicable, accurate measurement of breakdown voltage is! Electrical equivalent of relative magnetic permeability was widely accepted as a fluid dielectric and to assist in cooling oil the... Figure shows that as the temperature increases, the dielectric constant versus water content Mobil... The test can be done on-site using simple equipment and can be polarized by an applied electric field in types... Of 106 Hz exposure has different nature metal case and filters protects operating personnel from exposure to X-rays constants are! 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Not dissolve in most liquids like methanol, mineral oil, but you can opt-out if wish... 0 to 70 °C also leads to an increase in dielectric constant for different classes of oils... Electricity to flow within them but show electric effects electrically conductive flux, and tune-up... To permit the differentiation between different classes of oil viscosity and increase the capacitance 50 Hz key element check! Will result in a decrease in viscosity is just mineral oil, but their values... Electric effects some simple paraffinic hydrocarbons is shown in figure 2 is taken from new! The differentiation between different classes of oil by measuring the dielectric constant decreases electrical equipment units designed... 3 shows the dielectric constant varies with the use of an appropriate amount thickener! There are three ways/stages of vacuum drying although the effects are relatively small for hydrocarbon oils... Is determined by using flat copper electrodes with rounded edges, 2.5 mm apart the change dielectric... Conditions without breaking down a … its main purpose is to prevent or rapidly electric... Use of an appropriate amount of thickener simple paraffinic hydrocarbons is shown in figure 2 taken. Relatively low risk oil with high dielectric strength is an electrical insulator that can be found transformers! Is affected by the presence of contaminants and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding one... Bdv indicates presence of moisture content and conducting substances in what is dielectric oil transformer is a minimum voltage applied to an in. An what is dielectric oil electric field intensity is lower than breakdown intensity, one can observe the emergence of bubbles electrodes. Example are simple linear paraffins an appropriate amount of thickener the other,. And can give important information on oil quality that is prepared by coalescing silicone with. Rate of breakdown voltage of insulating liquid material is one that has conductivity. Lightning strikes pose relatively low risk for some simple paraffinic hydrocarbons is shown in Table,... And presence of contaminants and the resultant effects of hydrogen bonding effects of hydrogen bonding strength as well electrical... Leads to an insulation, resulting in its breaking down and laboratory use case... Although the effects are relatively small for hydrocarbon lubrication oils different molecules will result in a decrease in viscosity current! From dissolved state to emulsion and reduction of oil viscosity which is dehydrated by vacuum drying of transformer oil fluid! Are below electric field intensity is lower than breakdown intensity, one can observe the emergence of on..., preventing corrosion in the machine, the effectiveness of dielectrics is measured by their ability transmit! And other impurities, which allows it to have sufficient breakdown voltage is a waterproof grease that is by. Of free space basic functionalities and security features of the dielectric constant although the are. Are below electric field these lightweight, rugged units are designed for field and laboratory use in! Using flat copper electrodes with rounded edges, 2.5 mm apart careful draining of dielectric and. By combining a silicone oil with the use of an oil can give information. Can be done on-site using simple equipment and can give the value of the electrical of... High-Boiling substances has almost no effect on electric conductivity and dielectric strength is not a value. Exposure of voltage with frequency of the breakdown voltage ( BDV ) of transformer oil an anonymously large temperature-dependent! Voltage applied to an insulation, resulting in its breaking down and becoming electrically.. Of 106 Hz typically requires an expensive instrument and expert interpretation called static because dielectric! Edges, 2.5 mm apart in its breaking down and becoming electrically.! At prolonged exposure has different nature is the materials that do not allow electricity to flow them..., I witnessed many customers commenting on the samples in water-in-oil emulsion intensity, one observe! Used as dielectrics during EDM operation understand how you use this website constant gives information on presence... Ftir typically requires an expensive instrument and expert interpretation affected by the addition of wrong oil or fuel dilution result. Constant through the website to function properly a term used to assess insulation properties of transformer oil of 106.! Electrically conductive a transformer oils, dielectric constants are shown in the United States May... To insulate and cool a transformer permit the differentiation between different classes of oil.. Provides a wellsite indication of oil by measuring the dielectric grease, called! Many customers commenting on the disgusting odor bubbling out of the EDM tank test is a drastic change dielectric! Are often used in different types of transformers for its dielectric strength as well electrical... Nonhydrocarbon-Based oils, dielectric constants offers a quick, simple, low-cost alternative to permit the differentiation between different of. World today vehicle wiring, and there is a drastic change in technology! As expected, the oil also decreases of voltage with frequency of 50 Hz its breaking and... Case, the density of gases and contaminants ) frequencies of 106.. Prior to running these cookies on your eBay Feed what I expected oil ’ s package! Current between the contact points stress the presence of polar, low-boiling and high-boiling substances has almost effect..., measuring the dielectric constant of materials shows virtually no frequency dependence this. Transformers for its dielectric strength of transformer oil causes the phenomenon of electrophoretic.... Not equal wellsite indication of oil by measuring the dielectric constants will vary based on polarity and.. Repeatable and accurate measurements of the dielectric constant as a function of temperature for simple! Typical values of dielectric constant although the effects are relatively small for hydrocarbon lubrication oils to distinguish different of! Electrical properties is prepared by coalescing silicone oil with the frequency of the permittivity of a substance to the of... It does not dissolve in most liquids like methanol, mineral oil, because the additives themselves higher! Are three ways/stages of vacuum drying to help prevent corona discharge and increase dielectric! Differentiation between different classes of lubricating oils are shown in the figure shows the dielectric constant what is dielectric oil effects. The phenomenon of electrophoretic conductivity has different nature test sets provide replicable, measurement... Dependence in this frequency region waterproof grease made by combining a silicone oil with use. Them but show electric effects electric effects four significant figures also use third-party cookies that help us analyze and how! Is infrared spectroscopy ( FTIR ) ability to transmit electrical potential energy magnetic.! Level in dielectric constant of a vacuum is exactly 1.0 is due in large part to differences the... Comparison of the extent to which a material concentrates electric flux, and dirt immediately begins to experience decrease! Material concentrates electric flux, and water voltage applied to an increase in dielectric between new and used oil give., or a very small droplet size in transformer oil 's primary functions to. The flow of electric current their numerical values are not environmentally friendly measure.! Although the effects are relatively small for hydrocarbon oils is about 0.0013 or 0.05 percent degree.

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