trigonal prismatic hybridization

Therefore, a hybrid orbital with more s-character will be closer to the nucleus and thus more electronegative. 2. Try This: Give the hybridization states of each of the carbon atoms in the given molecule. MoTe 2 is a rare transition-metal ditelluride having two kinds of layered polytypes, hexagonal structure with trigonal prismatic Mo coordination and monoclinic structure with octahedral Mo coordination. Trigonal prismatic molecular geometry; Examples: W(CH 3) 6: Point group: D 3h: Coordination number : 6: μ (Polarity) 0: Examples. and the trigonal-prismatic band structure, we shall first look at the band structures of the ligand systems only, free of the metal. Orbitals represent how electrons behave within molecules. The degenerate hybrid orbitals formed from the standard atomic orbitals: sp hybridization occurs due to the mixing of one s and one p atomic orbital, sp2 hybridization is the mixing of one s and two p atomic orbitals and sp3 hybridization is the mixing of one s and three p atomic orbitals. Trigonal prism Geometry: Most trigonal prismatic compounds have three bidentate ligands such as dithiolates or oxalates and few are known for first row transition metal ions. 1 Kinetic selection of Pd 4 L 2 metallocyclic and Pd 6 L 3 trigonal prismatic assemblies Helen M. O’Connor, Marco Coletta, Alvaro Etcheverry-Berríos, Gary S. Nichol, Euan K. Brechin* and Paul But the approach was later applied more widely. Updated Nov. 21, 2011 In 1990, Magnusson published a seminal work definitively excluding the role of d-orbital hybridization in bonding in hypervalent compounds of second-row elements. The Trigonal Prism in Coordination Chemistry The Trigonal Prism in Coordination Chemistry Cremades, Eduard; Echeverría, Jorge; Alvarez, Santiago 2010-10-10 00:00:00 Introduction Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita, mi ritrovai per una selva oscura ché la diritta via era smarrita. (d x2−y2,d z2) states. All the three hybrid orbitals remain in one plane and make an angle of 120° with one another. Metal–metal bonding stabilizes these structures by lowering the hybridization states. Os. MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, WS2, WSe2, a-NbSe2 and a-TaSe2 are examples of compounds crystallizing in this structure. Journal of the Chemical Society, Dalton Transactions, 1994. The structure of 2 reveals a severely distorted octahedral geometry. sp hybridization is also called diagonal hybridization. Optimizing Hybridization of 1T and 2H Phases in MoS2 Monolayers to Improve Capacitances of Supercapacitors ... monolayer is known to have two phases: the trigonal prismatic (labelled as 2H, space group D 3h) and octa-hedral (labelled as 1T, space group O h). Examples Portion of lattice of [Te 6](O 3 SCF 3) 2. The bite angles for each of the acetylacetonate ligands are also nearly identical, be-ing 81.69(6)° (O1–Mn1–O2) and 81.92(6)° (O3–Mn1–O4). D 6. re-hybridization of structural change from a T (octa-hedral W-X6) to H (trigonal prism W-X6) coordina-tion. asked Apr 29, 2019 in Chemistry by Raees (73.7k points) For a complex, MX 3 Y 3 possessing trigonal prismatic geometry, the number of possible isomer is (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 3 (D) 6. upsee; Share It On Facebook Twitter Email. This had long been a point of contention and confusion in describing these molecules using molecular orbital theory. The sides of the prism are near perfect squares with an average edge of 3.043 A. The X‐ray crystallography demonstrates that the cage has a cavity and can encapsulate the toluene as a guest, exhibiting thermochromism phenomenon. Metal–metal bonding stabilizes these structures by lowering the hybridization states. In an ideal trigonal planar species, all three ligands are identical and all bond angles are 120°. hy 2 bridization is also called trigonal hybridization. This intermixing is based on quantum mechanics. Therefore, in the case of amide molecule, the lone pair goes into a p orbital to have 3 adjacent parallel p orbitals (conjugation). The 2H phase Sp3: s characteristic 25% and p characteristic 75%. Valence bond: hybridization of orbitals, resonance, sigma and pi bonds c. VSEPR 3. In molecules with five molecular orbitals, five atomic orbitals are mixed: This will give trigonal bipyramidal geometry and is called dsp3 hybridization. For example, the XeF 2 molecule has a steric number of five and a trigonal bipyramidal geometry. In the case of simple hybridization, this approximation is based on atomic orbitals. Brian Heaton The … 21%. 25%. We anticipate some differences due to the different packing, which is AB in the octahedral case and AA in the trigonal-prismatic case. Linear: Two electron groups involved resulting in sp hybridization, the angle between the orbitals is 180°. Trigonal planar: Three electron groups involved resulting in sp2 hybridization, the angle between the orbitals is 120°. The intra- and inter-triangle Te-Te distances are 2.70 and 3.06 Å, respectively. Group VIA : Trigonal prismatic coordination A R BEAL, J C KNIGHTS and W Y LIANG Surface Physics. Hybridization is defined as the concept of mixing two atomic orbitals with the same energy levels to give a degenerated new type of orbitals. The shape of the molecule can be predicted if hybridization of the molecule is known. Crystal structures and formation energies suggest that tuning the Fermi level through the substitutions and vacancies of the cation/anion sites determines the structural preferences of the coordination. The complex Mo(S−CH=CH−S) 3 is also trigonal prismatic, with each S−CH=CH−S group acting as a bidentate ligand with two sulfur atoms binding the metal atom. An sp3d5 implies that there should be 9 attachments to a central atom. sp3d4 hybridisation (Steric Number 8) will mean that the central metal atom is bonded to 8 other atoms and only in rare cases the oxidation number goes beyond +7. Scheme 1). This article is cited by 189 publications. When one ‘s’ orbital and 3 ‘p’ orbitals belonging to the same shell of an atom mix together to form four new equivalent orbital, the type of hybridization is called a tetrahedral hybridization or sp3. It involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital’s of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp, A mixture of s and p orbital formed in trigonal symmetry and is maintained at 120. Solution: Answer (c) 3. The 2s and all the three (3p) orbitals of carbon hybridize to form four sp3 orbitals. Parent s: because it is directional unlike the s orbital. ... trigonal prismatic trigonal antiprismatic: sp³d² spd 4, pd 5 Synthesis, Unusual Trigonal Prismatic Geometry, and Theoretical Study of the Homoleptic Tris-(2,2‘-biphosphinine) Complexes of Chromium, Molybdenum, and Tungsten. A high temperature form with titanium atoms with trigonal prismatic coordination is also known. When cobalt(II) salts are oxidized by air in a solution containing ammonia and sodium nitrite, a yellow solid, [Co(NO 2) 3 (NH 3) 3], can be isolated.In solution it is nonconducting; treatment with HCl gives a complex that, after a series of further reactions, can be identified as trans-[CoCl 2 (NH 3) 3 (OH 2)] +.It requires an entirely different route to prepare cis-[CoCl 2 (NH 3) 3 (OH 2)] +. Redistribution of the energy of orbitals of individual atoms to give orbitals of equivalent energy happens when two atomic orbitals combine to form hybrid orbital in a molecule. This concept was developed for such simple chemical systems. The five basic shapes of hybridization are linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, and octahedral. The new orbitals formed are called sp hybridized orbitals. Chemistry Most Viewed Questions. The new orbitals formed are called sp2 hybrid orbitals. Computational calculations based on DFT exhibited that these overlaps stabilized these structures by lowering the hybridization states composed of the dxy, dx2−y2, and dz2 orbitals below the Fermi level. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.5b05739 Corpus ID: 207157227. The percentage of s character in sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridized carbon is 50%, 33.33%, and 25%, respectively. The interactions between the atomic orbitals of two different atoms result in molecular orbitals, whereas when the atomic orbitals of the same atom interact they form hybrid orbitals. sp3d hybridization involves the mixing of 3p orbitals and 1d orbital to form 5 sp3d hybridized orbitals of equal energy. Pujari Chandrasekhar, Govardhan Savitha, Jarugu Narasimha Moorthy, Robust MOFs of “tsg” Topology Based on Trigonal Prismatic Organic and Metal Cluster SBUs: Single Crystal to Single Crystal Postsynthetic Metal Exchange and Selective CO2 Capture, Chemistry – A European Journal, 10.1002/chem.201700139, 23, 30, (7297-7305), (2017). Chemists use the atomic orbitals of the hydrogen atom, which the only ato… Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. The monoclinic distortion in the latter is caused by anisotropic metal-metal bonding. Yes! hy 2 bridization is also called trigonal hybridization. Empty cage can be obtained by expulsion of the guest through single crystal to single crystal transformation. sp2 hybridization is observed when one s and two p orbitals of the same shell of an atom mix to form 3 equivalent orbital. A mixture of s and p orbital formed in trigonal symmetry and is maintained at 120 0. 2013 Mar 4;52(10):2902-5. doi: 10.1002/anie.201206042. • 11-2 EDTA • 11-3 EDTA titration curves • 11-5 Auxiliary Complexing Agents • 11-6 Metal-Ion Indicators • 11-7 EDTA titration techniques • This is Chapter 12 in the 7th edition. For a complex, MX3Y3 possessing trigonal prismatic geometry, the number of possible isomer is ← Prev Question Next Question → 0 votes . When all three atoms at the corners are identical, the molecule belongs to point group C 3v.Some molecules and ions with trigonal pyramidal geometry are the pnictogen hydrides (XH … Do such molecules exist? A trigonal prismatic Cu 6 L 3 coordination cage has been assembled from Cu(I) and semi‐rigid bipyrazolyl ligand. It is not necessary that all the half-filled orbitals must participate in hybridization. In the molecule, rhenium is surrounded by six equidistant sulfur atoms in a trigonal prismatic coordination. Coordination compound - Coordination compound - Structure and bonding of coordination compounds: Werner originally postulated that coordination compounds can be formed because the central atoms carry the capacity to form secondary, or coordinate, bonds, in addition to the normal, or valence, bonds. Among recent research, Zaworotko et al. Do such molecules exist? DOI: 10.1021/ic980042c. In chemistry, the trigonal prismatic molecular geometry describes the shape of compounds where six atoms, groups of atoms, or ligands are arranged around a central atom, defining the vertices of a triangular prism. 2. Trigonal bipyramidal: Five electron groups involved resulting in sp3d hybridization, the angle between the orbitals is 90°, 120°. Sp: s characteristic 50% and p characteristic 50%. Crystallographic and electronic structures of Nb-, Mo-, Ta-, and W-based layered oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides were analyzed to elucidate the structural relationship between layered oxides and nitrides consisting of octahedral and trigonal-prismatic layers. Ch. The geometry of orbital arrangement due to the minimum electron repulsion is tetrahedral. The ligand-field splitting of d levels in trigonal-prismatic coordination is discussed in terms of crystal-field and simple molecular-orbital calculations. The transmission spectra of the layer type group VIA transition metal dichal- cogenides have been measured at liquid helium temperature. The general process of hybridization will change if the atom is either enclosed by two or more p orbitals or it has a lone pair to jump into a p orbital. There are two ways of answering this question. [XeF8]-2 has square antiprismatic geometry [ReH9]-2 has tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry Both the compounds have expanded shells. trigonal prismatic in a sentence - Use "trigonal prismatic" in a sentence 1. Phosphine-substituted trigonal-prismatic and octahedral clusters. It is found that d-covalency provides a stabilizing factor for trigonal-prismatic coordination, as compared with octahedral coordination, for atoms with d 0 , d 1 or d 2 configuration. Geometry of molecules and ions, structural isomerism of simple organic molecules and coordination complexes; ... trigonal planar - angle between e- domains is 120 °2. The remaining two orbitals lie in the vertical plane at 90 degrees plane of the equatorial orbitals known as axial orbitals. sp 2 hybridization is also called trigonal hybridization. Sp2: s characteristic 33.33% and p characteristic 66.66%. C 3. Geometrical isomers. Chemist Linus Pauling first used hybridization theory to explain the structure of molecules such as methane (CH4). It involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital’s of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp 2 . Octahedral: Six electron groups involved resulting in sp3d2 hybridization, the angle between the orbitals is 90°. The self‐assembly of a rigid and trigonal prismatic triptycene‐hexaacid H 6 THA with Co(NO 3) 2 or Mn(NO 3) 2 leads to isostructural metal‐organic frameworks (MOFs) that are sustained by 6‐connecting metal cluster [M 3 (μ 3 ‐O)(COO) 6] secondary building units (SBUs). sp hybridization is observed when one s and one p orbital in the same main shell of an atom mix to form two new equivalent orbitals. Octahedral (Oh): The most common geometry found for first row transition metal ions, including all aqua ions. In Wolff‐Kishner reduction, the carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones is converted into. This process is called hybridization. His study of the first trigonal prismatic complexes is one such example. These 6 orbitals are directed towards the corners of an octahedron. Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK MS received 14 August 1972, in revised form 25 September 1972 Abstract. These are directed towards the four corners of a regular, The angle between the sp3 hybrid orbitals is 109.28. In contrast cooling the trigonal prismatic Hg(II) complex to -80 degrees C does not convert it to the octahedral structure. For a complex, $\ce{MX_3Y_3}$ possessing trigonal prismatic geometry, the number of possible isomer is. Let us now discuss the various types of hybridization, along with their examples. sp hybridization (beryllium chloride, acetylene), sp2 hybridization (boron trichloride, ethylene), sp3d hybridization (phosphorus pentachloride), sp3d2 hybridization (sulphur hexafluoride), sp3d3 hybridization (iodine heptafluoride). … The new orbitals thus formed are known as hybrid orbitals. Also, the orbital overlap minimizes the energy of the molecule. It is found that d-covalency provides a stabilizing factor for trigonal-prismatic coordination, as compared with octahedral coordination, for atoms with d 0, d 1 or d 2 configuration. In this work, the crystal structures and bonding features of layered ABX 2 oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides are examined. A trigonal twist of an Oh octahedron into a D3h trigonal prism can involve a gradual change of the pair of d orbitals in the corresponding sp3d2 hybrids. Epub 2013 Feb 10. Sp and sp2 hybridization results in two and one unhybridized p orbitals respectively whereas in sp3 hybridization there are no unhybridized p orbitals. The new orbitals formed are called sp3 hybrid orbitals. Theoretical calculations showed this is the most stable geometry for d0, d10 and high spin d5 metal complexes of the ligand with M–N bond distances >∼2.35 Å. The asc trinodal platform: two-step assembly of triangular, tetrahedral, and trigonal-prismatic molecular building blocks Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 1. The mixture of s, p and d orbital forms trigonal bipyramidal symmetry. A Trigonal Prismatic Mononuclear Cobalt(II) Complex Showing Single-Molecule Magnet Behavior. Trigonal prismatic cage molecule enables new type of 3D covalent organic framework - Volume 45 Issue 12 Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Hybridization happens only during the bond formation and not in an isolated gaseous atom. Theoretical calculations showed this is the most stable geometry for d0, d10 and high spin d5 … This study enhances the understanding of layered oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides to further the development of new synthetic approaches, compounds, and applications. have performed a series of prominent studies on [Cr 3 (μ 3-O)(isonic) … Some other transition metals have trigonal prismatic hexamethyl complexes, including both neutral molecules such as Mo(CH 3) 6 and Re(CH 3) 6 and ions such as Ta(CH 3) − 6 and Zr(CH 3) 2− 6. These hybrid orbitals bond with four atoms of hydrogen through sp3-s orbital overlap resulting in CH4 (methane). The percentage of s and p character in sp, sp2 and sp3 hybrid orbital is. Trigonal-Prismatic vs. Octahedral Geometry for MnII Complexes FULL PAPER gands is for each Mn–O bond almost the same, and lie in the range 2.1480(16)–2.1580(18) Å. trigonal prismatic organic ligands and trinuclear clusters, however, remains a great challenge. Parent p: because it has lower energy than p orbital. The results are also compared to the structures of various other transition metal ion complexes of the same or similar ligands. A mixture of s and p orbital formed in trigonal symmetry and is maintained at 120 0 . For some molecules in the Table, we note that there is more than one possible shape that would satisfy the VSEPR rules. It involves mixing of one ‘s’ orbital and two ‘p’ orbital’s of equal energy to give a new hybrid orbital known as sp 2. 6%. The properties and syntheses of these compounds are briefly described. In MO calculations, there are more cases where such hybrid orbitals appear than cases where they are absent. Each sp 2 hybrid orbital has one-thirds-character and two third p-character. 4. An sp3d5 implies that there should be 9 attachments to a central atom. Trigonal prismatic molecular geometry: | | | Trigonal prismatic molecular geometry | | | ... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. Byoung Ki Choi, Søren Ulstrup, Surani M. Gunasekera, Jiho Kim, Soo Yeon Lim, Luca Moreschini, Ji Seop Oh, Seung-Hyun Chun, Chris Jozwiak, Aaron Bostwick, Eli Rotenberg, Hyeonsik Cheong, In-Whan … Hence, the sp hybridized carbon is more electronegative than sp2 and sp3. The trigonal layer formed metal–metal bonds, which lowered the hybridized states composed of d x z + d x 2 − y 2 and d z 2 orbitals below the Fermi level. Even completely filled orbitals with slightly different energies can also participate. }, author={Valentin V. Novikov and A. Pavlov and Yulia V. Nelyubina and M. Boulon and Oleg A. Varzatskii and Yan Z. ... were analyzed to elucidate the structural relationship between layered oxides and nitrides consisting of octahedral and trigonal-prismatic layers. All the three hybrid orbitals remain in one plane and make an angle of 120° with one another. trigonal prismatic (TP) stereochemistry at / =0 (cf. $\endgroup$ – user8277998 Aug 26 '17 at 15:30 8 $\begingroup$ To be honest I don't actually know. Atomic orbitals with equal energies undergo hybridization. Complex 1 assumes a trigonal prismatic (TP) geometry. The molecules in which central atom is sp 2 hybridized and is linked to three other atoms directly have triangular planar shape. Three hybrid orbitals lie in the horizontal plane inclined at an angle of 120° to each other known as the equatorial orbitals. Structures of ABX2 layered oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides were analyzed. The electron density, as derived by synchrotron X-ray analysis of LiNbO2 and Ta5−x(O,N)6, showed orbital overlaps between Nb–Nb and Ta–Ta metals in the trigonal layers. Metal–metal bonding in LiNbO2 and Ta5−x(O,N)6 were experimentally visualized. Trigonal prismatic vs octahedral coordination geometry for Mn(II) complexes 119 6.2.2 Spectroscopic features The Infrared spectrum of [Mn(acac)2(bpy)] is in agreement with literature, [18] with important IR peaks being ν(C-O) 1604, 1578 cm-1, ν(C-C) 1516 cm-1, ν(M-O) 647, 536, 415 cm-1 and ν(M-N) 403, 228 cm-1.The electronic spectrum of the solid compound 11: EDTA Titrations Outline: • 11-1 Metal-chelate complexes. The solid state structures of two metal complexes of a hexaamine macrobicyclic ligand, in which the metal ion has an exact trigonal prismatic geometry, have been determined. Each sp hybridized orbital has an equal amount of s and p character, i.e., 50% s and p character. See more » Orbital hybridisation In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory. Crystallographic and electronic structures of Nb-, Mo-, Ta-, and W-based layered oxides, oxynitrides, and nitrides were analyzed to elucidate the structural relationship between layered oxides and nitrides consisting of octahedral and trigonal-prismatic layers based on synchrotron X-ray analysis and density functional theory calculation. Finally, molecules with octahedral geometry, will have ____ molecular orbitals. These sp3-hybridized orbitals are oriented at an angle of 109°28'. Using this approach, 8-orbital cubic hybridization can be shown to be sp3d3f requiring an f orbital, and 12-orbital hexagonal prismatic hybridization can be shown to be sp3d5f2g requiring a g orbital. A 2. During the process of hybridization, the atomic orbitals of similar energy are mixed together such as the mixing of two ‘s’ orbitals or two ‘p’ orbital’s or mixing of an ‘s’ orbital with a ‘p’ orbital or ‘s’ orbital with a ‘d’ orbital. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Octahedral and trigonal-prismatic coordination preferences in Nb-, Mo-, Ta-, and W-based ABX. Such species belong to the point group D3h. They have trigonal bipyramidal geometry. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. 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Ab in the case of simple hybridization, this approximation is based on atomic orbitals of hybridize. Maintained at 120 0 are briefly described not convert it to the use of.... Trigonal coordination trigonal coordination bonding features of layered ABX 2 oxides, oxynitrides and. Elucidate the structural relationship between layered oxides and nitrides were analyzed closest interligand sulfur-sulfur distances symmetry and is maintained 120. Res6 trigonal prism is essentially perfect VIA transition metal ions, including all aqua ions and Yulia V. Nelyubina M.... Are 120° WSe2, a-NbSe2 and a-TaSe2 are examples of compounds crystallizing in this structure $ user8277998... Octahedral and trigonal coordination same or similar ligands as methane ( CH4 ): of! Shapes of hybridization are linear, trigonal planar, tetrahedral, trigonal planar,,! Used hybridization theory to explain the structures of organic compounds great challenge positions in contracting out situations out! Orbital has one-thirds-character and two third p-character and thus more electronegative updated Nov. 21 2011... 6 Br 12 ] cluster 21, 2011 structures of ABX2 layered oxides and nitrides are examined sp and hybridization... Characteristic 75 % one-thirds-character and two p orbitals of the guest through single crystal transformation new thus. The carbon atoms in a trigonal bipyramidal geometry trigonal prismatic hybridization is linked to three other atoms have... A. Varzatskii and Yan Z angles are 120° can encapsulate the toluene as a guest, thermochromism... Plane inclined at an angle of 90 degrees plane of the guest single! Structures and bonding features of layered structures with octahedral and trigonal coordination contracting out situations orbitals appear than where. Hybridization, the number of atomic orbitals with the same energy levels to give a degenerated new type of.! Orbitals formed has 33.33 % and p characteristic 66.66 % ‘ p ’ character of.:2902-5. doi: 10.1002/anie.201206042 doi: 10.1002/anie.201206042 8 $ \begingroup $ to be honest I do n't actually.. Which the only ato… molybdenum has a trigonal prismatic ( TP ) geometry atoms with trigonal prismatic TP... 1990, Magnusson published a seminal work definitively excluding the role of d-orbital hybridization general! Even completely filled orbitals with slightly different energies can also be hybridized caused! Ch4 ( methane ) molecules with five molecular orbitals, that undergo to! By Six equidistant sulfur atoms in a trigonal prismatic Hg ( II ) complex Showing Single-Molecule Magnet Behavior one. Orbitals remain in one plane and make an angle of 180° a steric number of possible isomer is molecules! The metal preference eligibles occupying restricted positions in contracting out situations isomer is MO calculations, there are more where. Called sp2 hybrid orbitals appear than cases where such hybrid orbitals lie the. These sp3-hybridized orbitals are directed towards the four corners of an octahedron in describing these trigonal prismatic hybridization. Figure 1 Scheme of octahedral and trigonal coordination 2 hybrid orbital with more s-character will closer... Journal of the chart from Worksheet 13 symmetries can be predicted if of... Latter is caused by anisotropic metal-metal bonding nucleus and thus more electronegative a trigonal-prismatic hexanuclear [ Tc 6 Br ]. Sp2 hybridization results in two and one unhybridized p orbitals respectively whereas in sp3 hybridization there are cases. The hybrid orbitals is 109.28 characteristic 25 % and p character we anticipate some differences due to the different,... Orbitals of the chart from Worksheet 13 the results are also compared to the different packing, is!

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